Online store. Beginning of work

Hello, habranarod!
I wrote a long article about osCommerce a long time ago, they even asked me to post my assembly. If anyone still needs it, I still have it, I can put the thread somewhere. But, having eaten up with OSK, we decided to write our system. Using CakePHP. Well told about this comrade neudor , with whom we developed this business. At the moment, he has somewhat moved away from working with the store, so I grab a baton from him to lead a series of articles devoted to developing software for an online store, as well as directly organizing the work itself, delivery service, registration, taxes. In general, a complete FAQ “from and to” - what awaits a novice entrepreneur if he decides to open a completely legal business in Russia, with the calculation of costs in money and time equivalent. So, today I will talk about the side of the issue that is not related to technical implementation ...

Legal registration

Those who are already familiar with the intricacies of communicating with our tax authorities can skip this section because there will be no new information for you here.
I chose to register an IP, as there are fewer problems with bookkeeping, and indeed the crap. To register an IP, you need:
- passport
- received TIN
- application for registration of an individual as an IP
- insurance and pension certificate
- 4 3x4 photos;
- 400r state. duty
All this is done in tax.

In the application, it is desirable to indicate the maximum list of what you will do. Yes, it can be corrected at any time, but because of this, go to the tax one more time ... These lines ... After applying for registration, within 14 days you need to submit an application for transfer to a simplified tax system. Otherwise they will put the usual one - and there you will have to pay more.
So, there are two simplified taxation systems: income tax and tax on “income minus expenses”.
1) Income tax. The funds credited to the account, registered purchases by cash register, etc. are taken into account. This amount is charged 6%.
2) Tax on income expenses. The difference between the money received and spent is taken, and 15% is charged from this difference.
It is enough to simply consider which is more profitable. If the line of business is resale, then, naturally, the second option will be more profitable. If pure income, for example freelance, then the first.

In a few days, the tax certificate will be issued by the OGRN IP (Main State Registration Number of the Individual Entrepreneur) and an extract from the USR (Unified State Register of IP). With all the documents you need to go to the local statistics authorities and get registered there. A few days later they will issue a “letter” with state codes OKPO, OKATO, etc.

Now you need to register with a pension fund at the place of residence. They will give out the calculation of how much you need to pay to the pension fund before the end of the year. I recommend paying immediately for the whole year in advance, as at the beginning of the year they can calculate at one rate, and in December, a receipt with a recalculated increased amount may come to the post office. I had to run a little bit now in December in connection with this.

Next, I recommend making a print. Type of mechanism and print - to your taste. In Chelyabinsk, it costs 400 rubles and takes 3 days.
It is simply impossible to open a bank account on an IP without printing. And with the press it is somehow more solid, or something.

Now the cash register. Honestly, damn it, the feeling creeps in that it's some kind of complete rip-off. 15,500 rubles is any cash register, regardless of its size, regardless of the office in which it is sold. Just one fixed price throughout the city. Plus, the obligatory conclusion of a contract for the maintenance of a cash register during the year. Another 2000r.

It’s like we’ve finished our preparations, now we’ll talk about the frequency of going somewhere so that everything is legal and that no one thinks that you are hiding.

Receipts for payment to the pension fund must be brought the next year after the paid period from January 1 to March 20, there they will write a certificate on the basis of the D-11 form (I don’t remember the exact form number, but it’s like this), which can then be presented where requested.

Submit a tax return quarterly, in the first 20 days after the end of the reporting period. With non-zero income, no documents are needed - no checks, receipts and other things. But still, they need to be kept in a separate folder, always ready, in case of a possible check.

Yes, wherever the documents are carried, copies of the passport and the documents themselves will always be needed. You can assure them even with the very inscription “copy is true”, painting and printing.

Phew Finally, they settled all the formalities and are ready to conquer the world. And since there is no money yet, and those that are out of my pocket, I will share some more considerations.

Income and expenses. Problems and solutions

We’ll have to accept that any business in the first 2 months will be unprofitable. There are no tales here. You can draw a clear analogy with the classic and very first UFO: Enemy Unknown. The first two months are hard, there isn’t enough funding from governments, and research on new technologies is underway. And even when it is already possible to build Laser Cannons for sale, there is simply no means for this. Then you can breathe more or less, and after six months, when 20-30 million are on the bill, everything seems pretty simple. So, starting to engage in any business, you need to lay these two cost months in the budget. What can be done? Minimize and rationalize all costs. Before starting an advertising company, you need (corny?) To research the market. Yandex easily provides such an opportunity. In the wordstat the query “food delivery” in the Chelyabinsk region is not very popular. There is a plus and a minus in this. The good thing is that there are no competitors and the cost per click is small. But the bad thing is that the number of people interested is very small. Therefore, in our case, the choice fell on special accommodation (just don’t need to click everything there now =). It costs not sky-high sums, only $ 0.8- $ 0.9, the conversion is about 20-30%. By the way, the adjacent request “pizza delivery” is much more popular.
I’ll go a little to one side, and then return to pizza. Initially, we had a very extensive catalog, about 5,000 products, which I needed to follow at the initial stages alone. Plus, we do not yet have our own warehouse, the purchase of goods occurs after receiving the order. At the same time, I drove out for the goods already with a printed invoice, with a cash register stamped out. And since we still have not very large volumes, the supplier did not give its daily updated price list. And, unfortunately, a situation was not uncommon when an order came, I confirmed it, came to the supplier, and some items were not in stock. I had to call the client back several times and explain the situation, negotiate, and even then I had to make changes to the account, interrupt the check ... A vicious circle. To start working full time, you had to have an exact price for every day, and in order to get it, you already had to have large volumes of purchases. It took a lot of time and nerves. This fact, plus the fact of the popularity of requests for pizzas, of which there are not many varieties, a radical decision was made to reduce the main catalog to the form “Pizza and related products”, i.e. there will be pizzas, beer, chips, other snacks, teas, juices.
From this long story, a simple conclusion can be drawn: grasp what you can really handle. Taking an assortment close to the Moscow Utkonos, we simply could not cope with it. No wonder that a lot of people work in the platypus. But then, with the development, it will already be possible to sway at expanding the range, opening several warehouses in different points of Chelyabinsk, etc.

Another thing that a developing company needs to do is to establish itself from the best side from the very beginning, in the very first weeks of work. The first client should feel that he is dealing with a serious company. To do this, you need to think through the entire scheme of work thoroughly, provide for pleasant trifles, and do not miss the obvious.

The obvious little things that we have identified for ourselves. At the initial stage, we take the minimum volumes.
Business cards:
500pcs - 400r, 3 business days
Packages with symbols: 100pcs PNVD - 1500r, 5 business days. Here we decided to make bags not T-shirts, but discounted plastic bags with a handle. This is so that there is some kind of re-branding and advertising on the streets. The usual good package with which you can go to the university or carry documents to work. A few lucky owners =) are already walking around the city.
The next in line for implementation are the designation of the courier and the vehicle. At the initial stage - maybe just a baseball cap with a patch, in the future a full form. For the car - vinyl stickers. Cheap and cheerful.

Then, a beginning and obscure business needs to decide where to get the first loyal customers. That is, it is one thing when someone came to your site, and another is an active user, who packs 3-4 times a week with you. What is the difference between them? What step should a person take to move from the first group to the second? I believe that he should "believe in service." Well, that is, get experience in direct interaction with the store without much risk to yourself. We came up with this. A person can go to the store, order products from the “try the store” section, and at the same time he will not pay for delivery. That is, he risks a maximum of 50 rubles and does not overpay anything if something happens. This is a psychological moment when you seem to pay nothing in advance, but still order something. That is, you agree to give money to the store. It’s scary to give a lot at once (more than 1000, so as not to pay for delivery). Suddenly they’ll bring something or something else, but you kind of have to pay anyway, well, or swear at the store. Buying a little (100 rubles) and paying a comparable amount for delivery is also stupid. You can go to the nearest kiosk. Well, our system, it seems to me, solves both of these problems. For example, yesterday we ordered two bottles of beer. A person easily agreed to a purchase, not expecting anything special. I tested the service so to speak. We handed everything over and stayed with this order in the red, but on the other hand we got another loyal customer who knows that you can buy something here and they will really bring it in 2-3 hours. And soon the New Year. We did not earn money - we earned a reputation. And some loss in monetary terms can be attributed to those first two months of the enterprise.

Move on. During the first presentation of his enterprise to anyone, absolutely all the functional part should be ready , the working scheme should be worked out. You need to be prepared for the “habr effect" when a small ad can attract a very large number of customers at once. So that it doesn’t work out like ours - when, due to technical imperfections, we were stupidly unable to fulfill all the orders.

And finally, a small remark about the engine of the store. After the article by neudor, if not all, then most of the wishes were taken into account, many bugs were found and fixed. They made a small adjustment - now the client must register in order to place an order. They did this to increase the percentage of reuse of the store. For the same purpose, a letter about the order has now arrived not only to the e-mail of the store’s operators, but also to the client’s e-mail. That is, the person in the box remains a “reminder” that he once successfully used the service. From time to time he will glance over her and may return. Well, at least the likelihood of this increases.


As you can see, at the very beginning you should not grasp everything at once. You need to start small and gain experience, because with a 99% probability at the very beginning there will be something that you did not take into account, and you will have to quickly figure it out.
There are two ways to sell your product - it is to form a need and to satisfy an existing need. Formation is Apple (I hope the idea is clear). And satisfaction is something worth dwelling on. We study what demand is already there (hi wordstat) and look for ways to satisfy it.
Well, plus, do not forget about the little things. To provide for pleasant ones, and not to miss the obvious ones.

All this is actually not as complicated as it seems.

PS Habrauser! A big request to you: if you decide to test the functionality of the store, and decide to place an order, write “habr” in the address so that you can easily filter these orders.

PPS At the moment we do not have an agreement with any pizzeria in Chelyabinsk. If someone here is directly related to any of them, I will be glad to receive a message in PM, we would very much like to cooperate!

PPPS didn’t have enough karma to post this on a thematic blog.
UPD: now enough